This book is brilliant not only for its incisive analysis, but for its accessibility for readers new to the field. Now with an additional chapter and an updated bibliography, The Empire Writes Back is essential for contemporary post-colonial studies. Postcoloniality and theory.
The metonymic function of language variance. Alochana Chakra , 34, pp. Muse India 41 ,.
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In: Chakraborty, P. Levant Books: Kolkata, pp. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities , 4 2 , pp. In: Basu, P. Modern Social Thinkers. Setu Prakashani: Kolkata, pp. Appropriations , 8, pp. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 9, pp. Contemporary Discourse , 3 2 , pp.
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Our staff Dr Sourit Bhattacharya. Research interests. Research interests Postcolonial and world literatures and theories Ecology, climate, food security, disaster, waste Decolonization, education, culture Race, caste, and social movements Translation and Indigenous Studies Marxism, ecocriticism, world-systems theory Biography Dr. Related Work In , along with Dr. Warsaw Uni. Leicester Uni.
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Additional Information. During an interaction in a pet shop, the narrator of 'The Courtyard' enquires how many languages the parrot on display can speak, only for the shopkeeper to reply almost acrimoniously: ''Wie viele Sprachen spricht ihr Papagei? The use of 'wir' ['we'] instead of 'he' or 'it' refers collectively to German speakers and excludes the Turkish customer, exposing the latent prejudice that the customer is an uneducated 'Gastarbeiter' [migrant worker] with a limited command of German.
The parrot can also be a metaphor for colonial linguistic domination: the parrot carries connotations of mimicry, learning and repeating exclusively the dominant language of the colonial metropole at the expense of an indigenous language. This 'unintelligible' German could be representative of anti-colonial resistance against one single enforced language of communication, an act of linguistic abrogation and defiance.
However, The Courtyard in the Mirror defies such strict cultural dualisms, favouring instead an amalgamation of languages and literary references to enrich the text.
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In so doing, the narrator creates a text in which cultural variety is celebrated and preserved, while emphasising the universal nature of imagination and the value of great literature regardless of the language of communication or the cultural origin of the author. When reflecting on the word 'Gastarbeiter' [migrant or 'guest' worker], the narrator says: 'das Wort 'Gastarbeiter' … ich sehe vor mir immer zwei Personen, eine sitzt da als Gast, und die andere arbeitet' 47 [the word 'guest worker' … I always see two people before me, one sitting there as a guest, and the other working.
By encouraging the German reader to phonetically construct meaning from decontextualised oral sounds, they mirror the initial stages of language acquisition, therefore evoking empathy with the cultural Turkish 'other' in its process of linguistic integration.
Postcolonial Theory and Criticiam: A Bibliography
A cornerstone in the postcolonial argument is the extent to which a coloniser attempts to impart their beliefs upon the colonised. When Jehovah's Witnesses visit the narrator, it appears on first reading that the preachers are proactively trying to engage with Germany's multicultural society, by pre-empting and overcoming potential communication barriers: 'Indisch? This encounter defies reductionism, however. The Jehovah's Witnesses are themselves marginal to Western Christian tradition, so it would be erroneous to claim that they represent a majority culture.
Postkolonialismus im Spiegel: Testing Postcolonial Theory on Turkish-German Diasporic Literature
Furthermore the narrator herself willingly fulfills preconceived racial stereotypes in order to end to the unwanted religious encounter, 'Ich nix Deutsch' 33 [I no German]. We encounter another example of an underlying sense of German superiority in another story in the same collection, when Sevgi brings Turkey to the German stage 'zum ersten Mal' 50 [for the first time]. This initially appears to be a step of cultural progression; however, it is undermined by issuing an explanation sheet which is distributed among audience members before the performance.
By declaring that the Turkish play is 'not logically structured' like traditional German theatre 52—53 , and requires cultural mediation, this seemingly progressive attempt to incorporate foreign artistic influences into the 'vertrauten' [familiar] German artistic sphere fails.
nilamouhollfor.tk The explanation sheet, albeit seemingly harmless, reinforces Homi Bhabha's premise that a coloniser wishes its colonised populace to 'mimic' the cultural hegemony while maintaining a degree of difference that separates them. While the German cultural curtain rises, tentatively introducing Turkey into the intellectual public sphere, the curtain to the German private sphere remains tightly closed. The narrator therefore uses a triad of mirros to manipulate her living space into a hybrid of her German immediate environment and her long-distance Turkish relationships.
Mandel suggests that a certain degree of self-conceptualisation is associated with such fantasies: 'the anxiety arising from living across national boundaries generates fantastic projections in which desires, dreams and obsessions find an outlet into new narratives of the self'. Indeed, there is a degree of conscious theatricality in the narrator's interactions with the titular mirror. By placing a lack of theatre in direct apposition to feeling isolated, the narrator directly links her happiness with her need for a creative output: 'In dieser Stadt habe ich [noch] kein Theater, ich habe keine Freunde' 18 [in this town I don't [yet] have a theatre, I don't have friends] — thus using the mirror as a theatrical substitute.
Such an interpretation, however, emphasises the political symbolism of the mirror, and neglects to acknowledge that the use of the fantastical is equally a stylistic choice to enrich the modality of the text.